Bootstrap 3.2.0 Quick Reference & Notes

An abridged list of the most commonly used Bootstrap code and features (by me)

Over the past couple of months, I’ve been exploring and getting familiar with Bootstrap. During this time I’ve been keeping notes on some of the sticking points I encountered, along with useful tips and commonly used features I’ve learned from testing Bootstrap and reading various online tutorials. Here I present a quick reference of sorts of what I’ve found to be the most useful, and frequently used, parts of Bootstrap. If you find an error, or would like me to add something that you find useful, post a comment or email me.

Text (example)

  • Text alignment classes: .text-left, .text-center.text-right, and .text-justify. These map to the CSS text-align property.  Example: <p class="text-left">Left aligned text.</p><p class="text-center">Center aligned text.</p><p class="text-right">Right aligned text.</p><p class="text-justify">Justified text.</p>
  • Paragraphs (and presumably other text elements) can be make to stand out with the .lead class, which sets the font size and weight, line-height, and bottom margin.
  • In headings (<h1>-<h6>) you can create lighter, secondary text with a generic <small> tag or the .small class.
    Example: <h3>h3. Bootstrap heading <small>Secondary text</small></h3>

Lists (example)

  • To have Bootstrap remove the default styling on a list (ordered and unordered), add the .list-unstyled class. Note that this only applies to immediate children list items, meaning you will need to add the class for any nested lists as well. Example: <ul class="list-unstyled">
  • Display list items horizontally using the .list-inline class. This uses display:inline-block and some padding. Example: <ul class="list-inline">
  • Make description lists (a.k.a definiton lists) two columns by using the .dl-horizontal class. Example: <dl class="dl-horizontal">

Tables (example)

  • For basic styling – light padding and only horizontal dividers – add the base class .table to any <table>
  • For zebra-striping rows, add the class .table-striped to the table.
  • For borders on all sides of the table and cells, add the class .table-bordered to the table.
  • To enable a hover state on table rows within a <tbody>, add the .table-hover class to the table.
  • To make tables more compact by cutting cell padding in half, add the .table-condensed class to the table.
  • Contextual classes for table rows or cells: .active,  .success, .info, .warning, .danger.
  • Create responsive tables by wrapping any table in .table-responsive to make them scroll horizontally on small devices (< 768px). When viewing on anything larger than 768px wide, you will not see any difference in these tables.

Forms (example)

  • Bootstrap has three main form layouts. Normal (vertical with labels above inputs), horizontal (labels to the left of inputs), and inline (like horizontal but with form controls not using 100% width)
  • Wrap form controls (label, input, textarea, select) in divs and give the div the class .form-group (Note: checkboxes and radio buttons instead get the checkbox or radio class respectively). This sets extra bottom margin on grouped form elements and allows changing orientation more easily. Don’t forget to add labels to your controls.
  • Add .form-inline to your <form> for left-aligned and inline-block controls. This only applies to forms within viewports that are at least 768px wide.
  • Give form controls (input, textarea, select) the class .form-control to pickup Bootstrap styling.
  • In form inputs you can use .input-lg and .input-sm for taller or shorter form controls.
  • Use the .checkbox-inline or .radio-inline classes on a series of checkboxes or radios for controls that appear on the same line.
  •  Style buttons with the .btn class.
    • You can also add .btn-default, .btn-primary.btn-success, .btn-info, .btn-warning.btn-danger, and .btn-link. Example: <button type="button" class="btn btn-danger">Danger</button>
    • Button size classes: .btn-lg, .btn-md.btn-sm, .btn-xs. For block level (full-width) buttons, use .btn-block. Example: <button type="button" class="btn btn-default btn-lg btn-block">Block level button</button>
  • All textual <input>, <textarea>, and <select> elements with the .form-control class are set to width: 100%; by default.
  • Use Bootstrap’s predefined grid classes to align labels and groups of form controls in a horizontal layout by adding .form-horizontal to the form. Doing so changes .form-groups to behave as grid rows, so no need for .row.
  • Give form controls the class .form-control. This applies various styles including 100% width.
  • Wrap inputs in grid columns, or any custom parent element, to easily enforce desired widths.

Images (example)

  • Images can be made responsive by adding the .img-responsive class which add a max-width:100% and height:auto;. You can also give images shapes with the .img-rounded, .img-circle, and .img-thumbnail classes.

Grids/Columns (example)

  • Rows (typically divs with the class .rowmust be placed within a .container (fixed-width) or .container-fluid (full-width) for proper alignment and padding.
  • Grid columns are created by specifying the number of twelve available columns you wish to span. Use rows to create horizontal groups of columns. Columns should total no more than 12 per row per size. Example: <div class="col-md-8">.col-md-8</div><div class="col-md-4">.col-md-4</div>
  • Content should be placed within columns, and only columns may be children of rows.
  • Grid classes apply to devices with screen widths greater than or equal to the breakpoint sizes, and override grid classes targeted at smaller devices. Therefore, applying any .col-md-* class to an element will not only affect its styling on medium devices but also on large devices if a .col-lg-x class is not present. Columns stack on smaller screens. Don’t want stacking? Apply classes for smaller resolutions in addition to the larger resolutions like <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.
  • Columns can be moved to the right using: .col-xs-offset-*.col-sm-offset-*, .col-md-offset-*, and .col-lg-offset-*. These classes increase the left margin of a column by X columns. For example, .col-md-offset-4 moves the column over by four columns. Another example, <div class="col-md-6 col-md-offset-3"> moves a six column wide column over by three columns.
  • The order of columns can be changed via the .col-md-push-* (pushes to the right) and .col-md-pull-* (pulls to the left) classes.

General

  • Easily center a page’s contents by wrapping it in an element (e.g. div) with the .container class. Containers set width at various media query breakpoints to match the Bootstrap grid system.
  • For multi-line blocks of code, you can use the .pre-scrollable class to create a scrollable, 350px (max) tall block.
  • General purpose text color classes: .text-muted, .text-primary.text-success, .text-info, .text-warning, and .text-danger.
  • General purpose background color classes: .bg-primary.bg-success, .bg-info, .bg-warning, and .bg-danger.
  • Floating left and right can be accomplished with the .pull-left and .pull-right classes respectively.
  • The class .sr-only will hide all elements with the class to all devices except screen readers.
  • Mobile specific classes:
    • Visible only on the specified screen size: .visible-*-block.visible-*-inline, and .visible-*-inline-block. So, for extra small (xs) screens for example, the available .visible-*-* classes are: .visible-xs-block, .visible-xs-inline, and .visible-xs-inline-block.
    • (Deprecated as of 3.2.0, but still usable) Visible only on the specified screen size: .visible-xs, .visible-sm, .visible-md, and .visible-lg.
    • Hidden only on the specified screen size: .hidden-xs.hidden-sm, .hidden-md, and .hidden-lg.
  • Printer classes: .visible-print-block, .visible-print-inline.visible-print-inline-block and .visible-print (deprecated as of 3.2.0) and .hidden-print.
  • Current media query breakpoint widths (in pixels): xs < 768, sm >=768, md >=992, lg >=1200.
  • To ensure proper rendering and touch zooming, add the viewport meta tag to your <head>. <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">. To disable zooming (not recommended), you can add the parameters user-scalable=no for a more app-like feel.
  • Bootstrap includes validation styles for error, warning, and success states on form controls. To use, add .has-warning, .has-error, or .has-success to the parent element. Any .control-label.form-control, and .help-block within that element will receive the validation styles.
  • Style anchors to look like buttons by using button classes. Example: <a href="#" class="btn btn-default btn-lg active" role="button">Link</a>
  • Button classes can be used on <a>, <button>, and <input>.
  • Add the bootstrap theme for visual enhancements. See http://getbootstrap.com/dist/css/bootstrap-theme.min.css and http://getbootstrap.com/examples/theme/

A Final Note:

Bootstrap is a starting point. An excellent one, but a starting point nonetheless. You are by no means constrained by anything that it provides, and you can override anything it sets. Always refer to http://getbootstrap.com for the latest info, more examples, and advanced topics.

Three HTML5 tools that are useful for game development

HTML5 is quite possibly the most user-friendly programming language currently available on the market. Not only does it help programmers create slick-looking games with ease, but it also allows titles to be ported on different platforms effortlessly.

Traditionally, HTML’s roles are simply to define the layout and text on web pages. However, its use has evolved to programming. The all-new HTML5 is now being used to include definitions for several programming elements including graphics, interactivity, and multimedia. This evolution seemed to have affected the programming style of gaming providers. Runescape 3, one of the most popular MMORPG games played by millions all over the world, is written in HTML5. Coversely, the longest-running casino gaming site, InterCasino, has created games written in HTML5 in order to provide better animation and graphics to their customers. The change is quite evident just by looking at some of the site’s browser-based slot games.

Without further ado, here are three tools for HTML5 that can be used for developing games.

Game Maker

Game Maker
is a powerful program that recently added an HTML5 support. One of its best features is that it allows developers to create games without writing a lot of code. This is all made possible with Game Maker’s GML, the primary scripting language of the tool designed to further enhance and control the game design through more conventional programming.

Here’s a sample video on how developers can make an easy slot machine game with good animation using Game Maker.

Spaceport NEO

Spaceport NEO isn’t a standalone game development system but it’s a pretty useful tool to port HTML5 games to the android and iOS platforms. It’s pretty useful for developers who jumped into the bandwagon of creating games for the huge market of smartgadget users. Apart from its ability to port games for smartgadget users, it can also convert Flash games to HTML5.

Construct 2

Construct 2
is a simple tool that can create powerful, groundbreaking HTML5-based 2D games. Like Game Maker, it doesn’t require developers to actually code games. The user interface is very easy to learn, and it allows coders to preview their game’s development instantly — a feature that isn’t available for a lot of game development tools.

Are you a programmer who has a favorite set of game development programs for HTML5? What tools do you use?

NBCNews.com Changes Again

It looks like I wasn’t the only one who thought that nbcnews.com’s last redesign was a disaster. Less than six months after radically redesigning their site, nbcnews.com has changed yet again, but this time for the better.

Gone is the layout designed only for mobile devices, with huge images everywhere and stories seemingly randomly scattered about. The latest design is closer to their old layout where stories are categorized, with a better use of space. They also left out a feature of the design prior to the last layout where a block of code above the header was hidden, forcing you to scroll up to see it after the page loaded. Anyone else using that pattern? I don’t think so.

So far, out of nbcnews.com’s last three layout changes, this is the best. We’ll see what they do next. Latest layout:

NBC_News_-_Breaking_News_&_Top_Stories_-_Latest_World,_US_&_Local_News_-_2014-09-11_09.38.17

Temporary Design Change

This is just a short note to let you know that due to recent server issues, we’ve had to temporarily change the look of CMF. We’ll be going back to the old look shortly, once some issues with our template are squared away.

Before/After Used in National Climate Change Website

The US government’s Global Change Research Program recently debuted a fancy new website with loads of HTML5 and CSS3 bells and whistles to discuss climate change. Among the visual eye candy is our own Before/After plugin in use to show the dramatic change in the Alaskan Muir glacier over a period of 60 years. Have a look at http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/regions/alaska#graphic-20971.

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