Category Archives: CSS

Bootstrap 3.2.0 Quick Reference & Notes

An abridged list of the most commonly used Bootstrap code and features (by me)

Over the past couple of months, I’ve been exploring and getting familiar with Bootstrap. During this time I’ve been keeping notes on some of the sticking points I encountered, along with useful tips and commonly used features I’ve learned from testing Bootstrap and reading various online tutorials. Here I present a quick reference of sorts of what I’ve found to be the most useful, and frequently used, parts of Bootstrap. If you find an error, or would like me to add something that you find useful, post a comment or email me.

Text (example)

  • Text alignment classes: .text-left, .text-center.text-right, and .text-justify. These map to the CSS text-align property.  Example: <p class="text-left">Left aligned text.</p><p class="text-center">Center aligned text.</p><p class="text-right">Right aligned text.</p><p class="text-justify">Justified text.</p>
  • Paragraphs (and presumably other text elements) can be make to stand out with the .lead class, which sets the font size and weight, line-height, and bottom margin.
  • In headings (<h1>-<h6>) you can create lighter, secondary text with a generic <small> tag or the .small class.
    Example: <h3>h3. Bootstrap heading <small>Secondary text</small></h3>

Lists (example)

  • To have Bootstrap remove the default styling on a list (ordered and unordered), add the .list-unstyled class. Note that this only applies to immediate children list items, meaning you will need to add the class for any nested lists as well. Example: <ul class="list-unstyled">
  • Display list items horizontally using the .list-inline class. This uses display:inline-block and some padding. Example: <ul class="list-inline">
  • Make description lists (a.k.a definiton lists) two columns by using the .dl-horizontal class. Example: <dl class="dl-horizontal">

Tables (example)

  • For basic styling – light padding and only horizontal dividers – add the base class .table to any <table>
  • For zebra-striping rows, add the class .table-striped to the table.
  • For borders on all sides of the table and cells, add the class .table-bordered to the table.
  • To enable a hover state on table rows within a <tbody>, add the .table-hover class to the table.
  • To make tables more compact by cutting cell padding in half, add the .table-condensed class to the table.
  • Contextual classes for table rows or cells: .active,  .success, .info, .warning, .danger.
  • Create responsive tables by wrapping any table in .table-responsive to make them scroll horizontally on small devices (< 768px). When viewing on anything larger than 768px wide, you will not see any difference in these tables.

Forms (example)

  • Bootstrap has three main form layouts. Normal (vertical with labels above inputs), horizontal (labels to the left of inputs), and inline (like horizontal but with form controls not using 100% width)
  • Wrap form controls (label, input, textarea, select) in divs and give the div the class .form-group (Note: checkboxes and radio buttons instead get the checkbox or radio class respectively). This sets extra bottom margin on grouped form elements and allows changing orientation more easily. Don’t forget to add labels to your controls.
  • Add .form-inline to your <form> for left-aligned and inline-block controls. This only applies to forms within viewports that are at least 768px wide.
  • Give form controls (input, textarea, select) the class .form-control to pickup Bootstrap styling.
  • In form inputs you can use .input-lg and .input-sm for taller or shorter form controls.
  • Use the .checkbox-inline or .radio-inline classes on a series of checkboxes or radios for controls that appear on the same line.
  •  Style buttons with the .btn class.
    • You can also add .btn-default, .btn-primary.btn-success, .btn-info, .btn-warning.btn-danger, and .btn-link. Example: <button type="button" class="btn btn-danger">Danger</button>
    • Button size classes: .btn-lg, .btn-md.btn-sm, .btn-xs. For block level (full-width) buttons, use .btn-block. Example: <button type="button" class="btn btn-default btn-lg btn-block">Block level button</button>
  • All textual <input>, <textarea>, and <select> elements with the .form-control class are set to width: 100%; by default.
  • Use Bootstrap’s predefined grid classes to align labels and groups of form controls in a horizontal layout by adding .form-horizontal to the form. Doing so changes .form-groups to behave as grid rows, so no need for .row.
  • Give form controls the class .form-control. This applies various styles including 100% width.
  • Wrap inputs in grid columns, or any custom parent element, to easily enforce desired widths.

Images (example)

  • Images can be made responsive by adding the .img-responsive class which add a max-width:100% and height:auto;. You can also give images shapes with the .img-rounded, .img-circle, and .img-thumbnail classes.

Grids/Columns (example)

  • Rows (typically divs with the class .rowmust be placed within a .container (fixed-width) or .container-fluid (full-width) for proper alignment and padding.
  • Grid columns are created by specifying the number of twelve available columns you wish to span. Use rows to create horizontal groups of columns. Columns should total no more than 12 per row per size. Example: <div class="col-md-8">.col-md-8</div><div class="col-md-4">.col-md-4</div>
  • Content should be placed within columns, and only columns may be children of rows.
  • Grid classes apply to devices with screen widths greater than or equal to the breakpoint sizes, and override grid classes targeted at smaller devices. Therefore, applying any .col-md-* class to an element will not only affect its styling on medium devices but also on large devices if a .col-lg-x class is not present. Columns stack on smaller screens. Don’t want stacking? Apply classes for smaller resolutions in addition to the larger resolutions like <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.
  • Columns can be moved to the right using: .col-xs-offset-*.col-sm-offset-*, .col-md-offset-*, and .col-lg-offset-*. These classes increase the left margin of a column by X columns. For example, .col-md-offset-4 moves the column over by four columns. Another example, <div class="col-md-6 col-md-offset-3"> moves a six column wide column over by three columns.
  • The order of columns can be changed via the .col-md-push-* (pushes to the right) and .col-md-pull-* (pulls to the left) classes.

General

  • Easily center a page’s contents by wrapping it in an element (e.g. div) with the .container class. Containers set width at various media query breakpoints to match the Bootstrap grid system.
  • For multi-line blocks of code, you can use the .pre-scrollable class to create a scrollable, 350px (max) tall block.
  • General purpose text color classes: .text-muted, .text-primary.text-success, .text-info, .text-warning, and .text-danger.
  • General purpose background color classes: .bg-primary.bg-success, .bg-info, .bg-warning, and .bg-danger.
  • Floating left and right can be accomplished with the .pull-left and .pull-right classes respectively.
  • The class .sr-only will hide all elements with the class to all devices except screen readers.
  • Mobile specific classes:
    • Visible only on the specified screen size: .visible-*-block.visible-*-inline, and .visible-*-inline-block. So, for extra small (xs) screens for example, the available .visible-*-* classes are: .visible-xs-block, .visible-xs-inline, and .visible-xs-inline-block.
    • (Deprecated as of 3.2.0, but still usable) Visible only on the specified screen size: .visible-xs, .visible-sm, .visible-md, and .visible-lg.
    • Hidden only on the specified screen size: .hidden-xs.hidden-sm, .hidden-md, and .hidden-lg.
  • Printer classes: .visible-print-block, .visible-print-inline.visible-print-inline-block and .visible-print (deprecated as of 3.2.0) and .hidden-print.
  • Current media query breakpoint widths (in pixels): xs < 768, sm >=768, md >=992, lg >=1200.
  • To ensure proper rendering and touch zooming, add the viewport meta tag to your <head>. <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">. To disable zooming (not recommended), you can add the parameters user-scalable=no for a more app-like feel.
  • Bootstrap includes validation styles for error, warning, and success states on form controls. To use, add .has-warning, .has-error, or .has-success to the parent element. Any .control-label.form-control, and .help-block within that element will receive the validation styles.
  • Style anchors to look like buttons by using button classes. Example: <a href="#" class="btn btn-default btn-lg active" role="button">Link</a>
  • Button classes can be used on <a>, <button>, and <input>.
  • Add the bootstrap theme for visual enhancements. See http://getbootstrap.com/dist/css/bootstrap-theme.min.css and http://getbootstrap.com/examples/theme/

A Final Note:

Bootstrap is a starting point. An excellent one, but a starting point nonetheless. You are by no means constrained by anything that it provides, and you can override anything it sets. Always refer to http://getbootstrap.com for the latest info, more examples, and advanced topics.

The Flick Scroller

Sometime last year I came across an image carousel on an Italian website done in Flash that allowed you to scroll a set of images horizontally with the flick of your mouse. What I loved about it was how natural and intuitive it felt. The gallery of images was infinite, meaning that the same X number of images would repeat no matter how often you scrolled it. The obvious downsides were that it was done in Flash and not mobile friendly.

I’ve been working on and off since then to replicate the effect, as well as improve upon it. I finally have a non-Flash solution that uses jQuery to achieve the effect both on desktops and mobile devices that doesn’t require any other libraries and is super slim. I love the infinite scrolling effect in use here which relies on an optical illusion of sorts.

I’m posting the first examples here and would like your feedback to see if I should turn this into a jQuery plugin. I’m also open to some suggestions in terms of a name. I like the “flick” part, but struggle with calling this a carousel, gallery,scroller, or something else.

Demos

A caveat: The only downside I’ve discovered so far lies in mobile Safari. I have seen the scroller start off and work fine in this browser, yet cease to respond after a few flicks. Unfortunately I seem to have no way to debug mobile Safari, so if anyone can shed light onto the issue I’d be happy to update the code.

Free Tools to Make a Web Developer’s (and Designer’s) Life Easier

Who doesn’t love free stuff? Most of the time the saying “you get what you pay for” applies, but every once in awhile sometimes you do get a free lunch. Whether it’s testing jQuery code, checking to see how a site looks in different browsers, or coming up with a color scheme, the following free tools have been extremely valuable in helping me get my work done.

VirtualBox

Originally developed by Sun, Oracle’s VirtualBox is a great piece of free software.Let me repeat that. Great piece of free software. It’s so good they should charge for it. Really.  In case you’re unfamiliar with VirtualBox or virtualization in general, what VirtualBox does is allows you to turn one computer into as many different computers as you like by giving you the ability to run almost any operating system as if it were an application. No dual booting, no partitioning, no reformatting. You can create and destroy virtual machines at will.

So why is this great? Continue reading

A Guide to CSS2 and CSS3 Pseudo-classes and Pseudo-elements

While the term “pseudo-class” might not instantly evoke what it refers to, virtually every web developer and web designer has used them. The classic example of pseudo-classes involves styling links based on the state that they’re in (hover, active, etc.). CSS3 introduces over a dozen new CSS pseudo classes to give you more control over targeting and styling elements. CSS2 pseudo-classes still work in CSS3, and CSS2′s pseudo elements are virtually unchanged in CSS3 (see the last paragraph). Below is a chart that outlines pseudo-classes in CSS2 and CSS3 with new CSS3 pseudo-classes in bold. Continue reading

Narrow Minded

Recently I was checking out some code written many years ago by another developer, and as I was hacking it up to be re-used, I started wondering why he had decided to split up his lines of code so that they were very narrow. Comments, for example, that were a few sentences long ended up spanning nearly a dozen lines when they could easily exist on just a couple of lines. It was then that I noticed that he had been wrapping his text at 80 columns – in other words, each line contained no more than 80 characters. It’s been a long time since I forced myself to wrap code at 80 columns, either because what I had written was concise to begin with, or because no one else would be looking at the code and it just didn’t matter, and I had almost forgotten why people did this in the first place.

I’ve seen code wrapped at 80 columns plenty of times before, but something about picking apart this code at that moment made me suddenly ask why. What was so special about this 80 column “standard” and why was it seen throughout the programming world? When I first started out coding this was just assumed to be the way to do things but I had never fully heard an explanation as for why this was done.

As it turns out the answer lies in old technology and tradition. In the early days of coding,  text based terminal displays were only 80 characters wide, so any lines longer than 80 characters needed to be wrapped. There just wasn’t any choice in the matter. Remember that GUIs and mice didn’t exist back then and scrolling was typically done only vertically. Some people believe that the even older computing method of using punch cards, which also typically had 80 columns, is the reason for this style of coding, however while it may have influenced the design of those old terminals, I don’t believe that punch cards directly gave way to practice of coding text at 80 columns.

Now since virtually no one uses an old terminal to write code, and today’s monitors are larger and have larger display resolution than older machines, why do we still see this? The answer? Tradition. Well that and readability. While most modern code editors will let you type a single line for as long as you want, reading that line becomes a huge pain in the ass. You’re forced to scroll horizontally to the right to read the code or comment, and then scroll back to the left to get back to the rest of the code. While an 80 column limit might seem constrictive or limiting, it actually makes code easier to read, and can help you write better code by making you find ways to shrink your code down to fit in one line. Another advantage to limiting the characters per line is code comparison. By staying with the 80 column rule you can usually fit two files side by side and examine them line by line quite easily.

Oh and while 80 columns is sort of a standard, 72 and 76 column layout are also quite common, but slightly more restrictive. Personally I am lazier than I like to admit and I often don’t pay a load of attention to how many columns each line of my code takes up. But that’s being both a bit lazy and selfish. By making your code readable, it helps you and anyone else looking at it…and you just know you’re going to need another set of eyes looking at your code at some point to help ferret out a bug down the line. And while I’m no advocate for 80 columns, if you stick with a layout that makes your code easy to read why not pick something like 100, 120, or 132 columns now that most people have larger monitors? Being lazy I also don’t think that any of this should be a rule but more of a suggestion or guideline. Bottom line, once you get your code to work the way you want it to, why not make it look good and improve the readability at the same time?